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Integrated Math III

Our fully accredited Common-Core aligned Integrated Math III course builds upon the strong foundations formed in Integrated Math I and II, further developing students' knowledge and skills in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, probability, and statistics. In addition, this course introduces new mathematical objects, namely vectors, matrices, and random variables. Upon completing this course, students will have gained all the necessary tools to study calculus and other foundational college-level courses successfully.




In this course, students generalize their understanding of quadratic functions to include cubic and other polynomials. Students gain a solid experience of fundamental concepts involving these higher-level polynomials, including factorization, division, solving polynomial equations, and essential polynomial theorems and their applications.

Knowledge of inequalities and their solutions is essential when studying college-level mathematics. In this course, students build on existing knowledge of functions to solve various types of inequalities, including quadratic, polynomial, rational, and two-variable nonlinear inequalities.

In this course, students further develop the knowledge gained in Integrated Math II to carry out deep explorations of trigonometric functions. They will learn how to apply the law of sines and cosines, derive and apply trigonometric identities, solve trigonometric equations, and explore inverse trigonometric functions.

At this level, students experience their first taste of alternatives to the Cartesian coordinate system, exploring the basics of parametric and polar coordinates. They will learn how to convert to and from Cartesian coordinates and plot simple curves in these coordinate systems.

Students explore advanced mathematical objects such as vectors and matrices at this level. Students will master vector addition, scalar multiplication and learn about different types of vector products. They will learn to apply various operations to matrices and explore determinants. In addition, they will use these ideas to solve geometric problems involving length, angle, area, and volume. Students will also gain a concrete understanding of linear transformations in the plane and relate these operations to their current knowledge of transformations.

Students take their knowledge of complex numbers to new depths by exploring complex numbers in polar form, De Moivre’s theorem, Euler’s theorem, and the fundamental theorem of algebra. They will also explore how operations on complex numbers can be interpreted as transformations of vectors in the complex plane.

Students complete their understanding of the four conic sections to include ellipses and hyperbolas. In addition, students achieve mastery of radical and rational functions, including sketching their graphs and describing properties.

Finally, students will explore advanced concepts in probability and statistics, including conditional probability, discrete random variables, and the normal distribution.

Upon successful completion of this course, students will have mastered the following:
Sequences & Series
7 topics
1.1. Finite Geometric Series
1.1.1. The Sum of a Finite Geometric Series
1.1.2. The Sum of the First N Terms of a Geometric Series
1.1.3. Writing Geometric Series in Sigma Notation
1.1.4. Finding the Sum of a Geometric Series Given in Sigma Notation
1.1.5. Solving Geometric Series Problems Using Exponential Equations and Inequalities
1.1.6. Modeling With Geometric Series
1.1.7. Modeling Financial Problems Using Geometric Series
28 topics
2.2. Factoring Polynomials
2.2.1. Factoring Polynomials Using the Greatest Common Factor
2.2.2. Factoring Higher-Order Polynomials as a Difference of Squares
2.2.3. Factoring Cubic Expressions by Grouping
2.2.4. Factoring Sums and Differences of Cubes
2.2.5. Factoring Biquadratic Expressions
2.3. Dividing Polynomials
2.3.1. Dividing Polynomials Using Synthetic Division
2.3.2. Dividing Polynomials by Linear Binomials Using Long Division
2.3.3. Dividing Polynomials Using Long Division
2.3.4. Dividing Polynomials by Manipulating Rational Expressions
2.3.5. Closure Properties of Polynomials
2.4. Polynomial Equations
2.4.1. Determining the Roots of Polynomials
2.4.2. Solving Polynomial Equations Using the Greatest Common Factor
2.4.3. Solving Cubic Equations by Grouping
2.4.4. Solving Biquadratic Equations
2.5. Polynomial Theorems
2.5.1. The Factor Theorem
2.5.2. Determining Polynomial Coefficients Using the Factor Theorem
2.5.3. Factoring Cubic Polynomials Using the Factor Theorem
2.5.4. Factoring Quartic Polynomials Using the Factor Theorem
2.5.5. Multiplicities of the Roots of Polynomials
2.5.6. Finding Multiplicities of the Roots of Quartic Polynomials by Factoring
2.5.7. The Remainder Theorem
2.5.8. The Rational Roots Theorem
2.6. Graphs of Polynomials
2.6.1. Graphing Elementary Cubic Functions
2.6.2. Graphing Cubic Curves Containing Three Distinct Real Roots
2.6.3. Graphing Cubic Curves Containing a Double Root
2.6.4. Graphing Cubic Curves Containing One Distinct Real Root
2.6.5. End Behavior of Polynomials
2.6.6. Graphing General Polynomials
Rational Equations & Functions
29 topics
3.7. Rational Expressions
3.7.1. Simplifying Rational Expressions Using Polynomial Factorization
3.7.2. Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions
3.7.3. Adding Rational Expressions With No Common Factors in the Denominator
3.7.4. Multiplying Rational Expressions
3.7.5. Dividing Rational Expressions
3.7.6. Closure Properties of Rational Expressions
3.8. Rational Equations
3.8.1. Rational Equations With Three Terms
3.8.2. Advanced Rational Equations
3.8.3. Further Advanced Rational Equations
3.9. Reciprocal Functions
3.9.1. Graphing Reciprocal Functions
3.9.2. Graph Transformations of Reciprocal Functions
3.9.3. Combining Graph Transformations of Reciprocal Functions
3.9.4. Domain and Range of Transformed Reciprocal Functions
3.9.5. Inverses of Reciprocal Functions
3.9.6. Finding Intersections of Lines and Reciprocal Functions
3.10. Rational Functions
3.10.1. Roots of Rational Functions
3.10.2. Vertical Asymptotes of Rational Functions
3.10.3. Locating Holes in Rational Functions
3.10.4. Horizontal Asymptotes of Rational Functions
3.10.5. End Behavior of Rational Functions
3.10.6. Infinite Limits of Rational Functions
3.10.7. Infinite Limits of Rational Functions: Advanced Cases
3.10.8. The Domain and Range of a Rational Function
3.10.9. Identifying a Rational Function From a Graph
3.10.10. Identifying a Rational Function From a Graph Containing Holes
3.10.11. Identifying the Graph of a Rational Function
3.11. Radical Expressions
3.11.1. Simplifying Square Root Expressions Using Polynomial Factorization
3.11.2. Rationalizing Denominators of Algebraic Expressions
3.11.3. Rationalizing Denominators With Two Terms
Radical Functions
9 topics
4.12. Graphs of Radical Functions
4.12.1. Graphing the Square Root Function
4.12.2. Graph Transformations of Square Root Functions
4.12.3. Graphing the Cube Root Function
4.12.4. Properties of Transformed Square Root Functions
4.12.5. The Domain of a Transformed Radical Function
4.12.6. The Range of a Transformed Radical Function
4.12.7. Roots of Transformed Radical Functions
4.12.8. Inverses of Radical Functions
4.12.9. Finding Intersections of Lines and Radical Functions
19 topics
5.13. Quadratic Inequalities
5.13.1. Solving Elementary Quadratic Inequalities
5.13.2. Solving Quadratic Inequalities From Graphs
5.13.3. Solving Quadratic Inequalities Using the Graphical Method
5.13.4. Solving Quadratic Inequalities Using the Sign Table Method
5.13.5. Solving Discriminant Problems Using Quadratic Inequalities
5.14. Polynomial Inequalities
5.14.1. Inequalities Involving Powers of Binomials
5.14.2. Solving Polynomial Inequalities Using a Graphical Method
5.14.3. Solving Polynomial Inequalities Using Special Factoring Techniques and the Graphical Method
5.14.4. Solving Polynomial Inequalities Using the Sign Table Method
5.15. Non-Polynomial Inequalities
5.15.1. Solving Radical Inequalities
5.15.2. Solving Inequalities Involving Exponential Functions
5.15.3. Solving Inequalities Involving Logarithmic Functions
5.15.4. Solving Inequalities Involving Exponential Functions and Polynomials
5.15.5. Solving Inequalities Involving Positive and Negative Factors
5.15.6. Solving Inequalities Involving Geometric Sequences
5.15.7. Solving Rational Inequalities
5.15.8. Further Solving of Rational Inequalities
5.15.9. Solving Two-Variable Nonlinear Inequalities
5.15.10. Further Solving of Two-Variable Nonlinear Inequalities
20 topics
6.16. Ellipses as Conic Sections
6.16.1. Introduction to Ellipses
6.16.2. Equations of Ellipses Centered at the Origin
6.16.3. Equations of Ellipses Centered at a General Point
6.16.4. Finding the Center and Axes of Ellipses by Completing the Square
6.16.5. Finding Intercepts of Ellipses
6.16.6. Finding Intersections of Ellipses and Lines
6.16.7. Foci of Ellipses
6.16.8. Vertices and Eccentricity of Ellipses
6.16.9. Directrices of Ellipses
6.16.10. The Area of an Ellipse
6.17. Hyperbolas as Conic Sections
6.17.1. Equations of Hyperbolas Centered at the Origin
6.17.2. Equations of Hyperbolas Centered at a General Point
6.17.3. Asymptotes of Hyperbolas Centered at the Origin
6.17.4. Asymptotes of Hyperbolas Centered at a General Point
6.17.5. Finding Intercepts and Intersections of Hyperbolas
6.17.6. Transverse Axes of Hyperbolas
6.17.7. Conjugate Axes of Hyperbolas
6.17.8. Foci of Hyperbolas
6.17.9. Eccentricity and Vertices of Hyperbolas
6.17.10. Directrices of Hyperbolas
Trigonometric Functions
10 topics
7.18. Trigonometry with General Triangles
7.18.1. The Law of Sines
7.18.2. The Law of Cosines
7.18.3. The Area of a General Triangle
7.18.4. Modeling Using the Law of Sines
7.18.5. Modeling Using the Law of Cosines
7.19. The Inverse Trigonometric Functions
7.19.1. Graphing the Inverse Sine Function
7.19.2. Graphing the Inverse Cosine Function
7.19.3. Graphing the Inverse Tangent Function
7.19.4. Evaluating Expressions Containing Inverse Trigonometric Functions
7.19.5. Further Evaluating Expressions Containing Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Identities
22 topics
8.20. Trigonometric Identities
8.20.1. Simplifying Expressions Using Basic Trigonometric Identities
8.20.2. Simplifying Expressions Using the Pythagorean Identity
8.20.3. Alternate Forms of the Pythagorean Identity
8.20.4. Simplifying Expressions Using the Secant-Tangent Identity
8.20.5. Alternate Forms of the Secant-Tangent Identity
8.20.6. Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions Using the Cotangent-Cosecant Identity
8.20.7. Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions Using Cofunction Identities
8.21. The Sum and Difference Formulas
8.21.1. The Sum and Difference Formulas for Sine
8.21.2. The Sum and Difference Formulas for Cosine
8.21.3. The Sum and Difference Formulas for Tangent
8.21.4. Calculating Trigonometric Ratios Using the Sum Formula for Sine
8.21.5. Calculating Trigonometric Ratios Using the Sum Formula for Cosine
8.21.6. Calculating Trigonometric Ratios Using the Sum Formula for Tangent
8.21.7. Writing Sums of Trigonometric Functions in Amplitude-Phase Form
8.22. The Double-Angle Formulas
8.22.1. The Double-Angle Formula for Sine
8.22.2. Verifying Trigonometric Identities Using the Double-Angle Formula for Sine
8.22.3. Using the Double-Angle Formula for Sine With the Pythagorean Theorem
8.22.4. The Double-Angle Formula for Cosine
8.22.5. Verifying Trigonometric Identities Using the Double-Angle Formulas for Cosine
8.22.6. Finding Exact Values of Trigonometric Expressions Using the Double-Angle Formulas for Cosine
8.22.7. Simplifying Expressions Using the Double-Angle Formula for Tangent
8.22.8. Verifying Trigonometric Identities Using the Double-Angle Formula for Tangent
Trigonometric Equations
15 topics
9.23. Elementary Trigonometric Equations
9.23.1. Elementary Trigonometric Equations Containing Sine
9.23.2. Elementary Trigonometric Equations Containing Cosine
9.23.3. Elementary Trigonometric Equations Containing Tangent
9.23.4. Elementary Trigonometric Equations Containing Secant
9.23.5. Elementary Trigonometric Equations Containing Cosecant
9.23.6. Elementary Trigonometric Equations Containing Cotangent
9.23.7. General Solutions of Elementary Trigonometric Equations
9.24. Trigonometric Equations Containing Transformed Functions
9.24.1. General Solutions of Trigonometric Equations With Transformed Functions
9.24.2. Trigonometric Equations Containing Transformed Sine Functions
9.24.3. Trigonometric Equations Containing Transformed Cosine Functions
9.24.4. Trigonometric Equations Containing Transformed Tangent Functions
9.25. Advanced Trigonometric Equations
9.25.1. Solving Trigonometric Equations Using the Sin-Cos-Tan Identity
9.25.2. Solving Trigonometric Equations Using the Zero-Product Property
9.25.3. Quadratic Trigonometric Equations Containing Sine or Cosine
9.25.4. Quadratic Trigonometric Equations Containing Tangent or Cotangent
Parametric Equations
10 topics
10.26. Parametric Equations
10.26.1. Graphing Curves Defined Parametrically
10.26.2. Cartesian Equations of Parametric Curves
10.26.3. Finding Intercepts of Curves Defined Parametrically
10.26.4. Finding Intersections of Parametric Curves and Lines
10.26.5. Parametric Equations of Circles
10.26.6. Parametric Equations of Ellipses
10.26.7. Parametric Equations of Parabolas
10.26.8. Parametric Equations of Parabolas Centered at (h,k)
10.26.9. Parametric Equations of Horizontal Hyperbolas
10.26.10. Parametric Equations of Vertical Hyperbolas
Polar Equations
6 topics
11.27. Polar Coordinates
11.27.1. Introduction to Polar Coordinates
11.27.2. Converting from Polar Coordinates to Cartesian Coordinates
11.27.3. Polar Equations of Circles Centered at the Origin
11.27.4. Polar Equations of Radial Lines
11.27.5. Polar Equations of Circles Centered on the Coordinate Axes
11.27.6. Finding Intersections of Polar Curves
Complex Numbers
28 topics
12.28. The Complex Plane
12.28.1. The Complex Plane
12.28.2. The Magnitude of a Complex Number
12.28.3. The Argument of a Complex Number
12.28.4. Arithmetic in the Complex Plane
12.28.5. Geometry in the Complex Plane
12.29. Further Complex Numbers
12.29.1. The Complex Conjugate
12.29.2. Special Properties of the Complex Conjugate
12.29.3. The Complex Conjugate and the Roots of a Quadratic Equation
12.29.4. Dividing Complex Numbers
12.29.5. Solving Equations by Equating Real and Imaginary Parts
12.29.6. Extending Polynomial Identities to the Complex Numbers
12.30. Complex Numbers in Polar Form
12.30.1. The Polar Form of a Complex Number
12.30.2. Products of Complex Numbers Expressed in Polar Form
12.30.3. Quotients of Complex Numbers Expressed in Polar Form
12.30.4. The CIS Notation
12.31. De Moivre's Theorem
12.31.1. De Moivre's Theorem
12.31.2. Finding Powers of Complex Numbers Using De Moivre's Theorem
12.31.3. The Power-Reducing Formulas for Sine and Cosine
12.31.4. Euler's Formula
12.31.5. The Roots of Unity
12.31.6. Properties of Roots of Unity
12.31.7. Square Roots of Complex Numbers
12.31.8. Higher Roots of Complex Numbers
12.32. The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
12.32.1. The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra for Quadratic Equations
12.32.2. The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra with Cubic Equations
12.32.3. Solving Cubic Equations With Complex Roots
12.32.4. The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra with Quartic Equations
12.32.5. Solving Quartic Equations With Complex Roots
30 topics
13.33. Introduction to Vectors
13.33.1. Introduction to Vectors
13.33.2. The Triangle Law for the Addition of Two Vectors
13.33.3. Calculating the Magnitude of a Vector From Given Information
13.33.4. Problem Solving Using Vector Diagrams
13.33.5. Parallel Vectors
13.33.6. Unit Vectors
13.33.7. Linear Combinations of Vectors and Their Properties
13.33.8. Describing the Position Vector of a Point Using Known Vectors
13.34. Vectors in 2D Cartesian Coordinates
13.34.1. Two-Dimensional Vectors Expressed in Component Form
13.34.2. Addition and Scalar Multiplication of Cartesian Vectors in 2D
13.34.3. Calculating the Magnitude of Cartesian Vectors in 2D
13.34.4. Calculating the Direction of Cartesian Vectors in 2D
13.34.5. Calculating the Components of Cartesian Vectors in 2D
13.34.6. Velocity and Acceleration for Plane Motion
13.34.7. Calculating Displacement for Plane Motion
13.35. Vectors in 3D Cartesian Coordinates
13.35.1. Three-Dimensional Vectors in Component Form
13.35.2. Addition and Scalar Multiplication of Cartesian Vectors in 3D
13.35.3. Calculating the Magnitude of Cartesian Vectors in 3D
13.36. The Dot Product
13.36.1. Calculating the Dot Product Using Angle and Magnitude
13.36.2. Calculating the Dot Product Using Components
13.36.3. The Angle Between Two Vectors
13.36.4. Calculating a Scalar Projection
13.36.5. Calculating a Vector Projection
13.37. The Cross Product
13.37.1. The Cross Product of Two Vectors
13.37.2. Properties of the Cross Product
13.37.3. Calculating the Cross Product Using Determinants
13.37.4. Finding Areas Using the Cross Product
13.37.5. The Scalar Triple Product
13.37.6. Volumes of Parallelepipeds
13.37.7. Finding Volumes of Tetrahedrons and Pyramids Using Vector Products
37 topics
14.38. Introduction to Matrices
14.38.1. Introduction to Matrices
14.38.2. Index Notation for Matrices
14.38.3. Adding and Subtracting Matrices
14.38.4. Properties of Matrix Addition
14.38.5. Scalar Multiplication of Matrices
14.38.6. Zero, Square, Diagonal and Identity Matrices
14.38.7. The Transpose of a Matrix
14.39. Matrix Multiplication
14.39.1. Multiplying a Matrix by a Column Vector
14.39.2. Multiplying Square Matrices
14.39.3. Conformability for Matrix Multiplication
14.39.4. Multiplying Matrices
14.39.5. Powers of Matrices
14.39.6. Multiplying a Matrix by the Identity Matrix
14.39.7. Properties of Matrix Multiplication
14.39.8. Representing 2x2 Systems of Equations Using a Matrix Product
14.39.9. Representing 3x3 Systems of Equations Using a Matrix Product
14.40. Determinants
14.40.1. The Determinant of a 2x2 Matrix
14.40.2. The Geometric Interpretation of the 2x2 Determinant
14.40.3. The Minors of a 3x3 Matrix
14.40.4. The Determinant of a 3x3 Matrix
14.41. The Inverse of a Matrix
14.41.1. Introduction to the Inverse of a Matrix
14.41.2. Inverses of 2x2 Matrices
14.41.3. Calculating the Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix Using the Cofactor Method
14.41.4. Solving 2x2 Systems of Equations Using Inverse Matrices
14.41.5. Solving Systems of Equations Using Inverse Matrices
14.42. Linear Transformations
14.42.1. Introduction to Linear Transformations
14.42.2. The Standard Matrix of a Linear Transformation
14.42.3. Linear Transformations of Points and Lines in the Plane
14.42.4. Linear Transformations of Objects in the Plane
14.42.5. Dilations and Reflections as Linear Transformations
14.42.6. Shear and Stretch as Linear Transformations
14.42.7. Right-Angle Rotations as Linear Transformations
14.42.8. Rotations as Linear Transformations
14.42.9. Combining Linear Transformations Using 2x2 Matrices
14.42.10. Inverting Linear Transformations
14.42.11. Area Scale Factors of Linear Transformations
14.42.12. Singular Linear Transformations in the Plane
Statistics & Probability
26 topics
15.43. Regression
15.43.1. Selecting a Regression Model
15.43.2. Quadratic Regression
15.43.3. Semi-Log Scatter Plots
15.43.4. Exponential Regression
15.44. Conditional Probability
15.44.1. Conditional Probabilities From Venn Diagrams
15.44.2. Conditional Probabilities From Tables
15.44.3. The Multiplication Law for Conditional Probability
15.44.4. The Law of Total Probability
15.44.5. Tree Diagrams for Dependent Events
15.44.6. Tree Diagrams for Dependent Events: Applications
15.44.7. Independent Events
15.44.8. Tree Diagrams for Independent Events
15.45. Discrete Random Variables
15.45.1. Probability Mass Functions of Discrete Random Variables
15.45.2. Cumulative Distribution Functions for Discrete Random Variables
15.45.3. Expected Values of Discrete Random Variables
15.45.4. The Binomial Distribution
15.45.5. Modeling With the Binomial Distribution
15.45.6. The Geometric Distribution
15.45.7. Modeling With the Geometric Distribution
15.46. The Normal Distribution
15.46.1. The Standard Normal Distribution
15.46.2. Symmetry Properties of the Standard Normal Distribution
15.46.3. The Normal Distribution
15.46.4. Mean and Variance of the Normal Distribution
15.46.5. Percentage Points of the Standard Normal Distribution
15.46.6. Modeling With the Normal Distribution
15.46.7. The Empirical Rule for the Normal Distribution